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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2;93(7):3149-54.

A high-resolution physical map of human chromosome 11.

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  • 1Department of Human Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.


The development of a highly reliable physical map with landmark sites spaced an average of 100 kbp apart has been a central goal of the Human Genome Project. We have approached the physical mapping of human chromosome 11 with this goal as a primary target. We have focused on strategies that would utilize yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) technology, thus permitting long-range coverage of hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, yet we sought to minimize the ambiguities inherent in the use of this technology, particularly the occurrence of chimeric genomic DNA clones. This was achieved through the development of a chromosome 11-specific YAC library from a human somatic cell hybrid line that has retained chromosome 11 as its sole human component. To maximize the efficiency of YAC contig assembly and extension, we have employed an Alu-PCR-based hybridization screening system. This system eliminates many of the more costly and time-consuming steps associated with sequence tagged site content mapping such as sequencing, primer production, and hierarchical screening, resulting in greater efficiency with increased throughput and reduced cost. Using these approaches, we have achieved YAC coverage for >90% of human chromosome 11, with an average intermarker distance of <100 kbp. Cytogenetic localization has been determined for each contig by fluorescent in situ hybridization and/or sequence tagged site content. The YAC contigs that we have generated should provide a robust framework to move forward to sequence-ready templates for the sequencing efforts of the Human Genome Project as well as more focused positional cloning on chromosome 11.

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