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Biol Psychol. 1995 Nov 16;41(3):271-93.

Biosocial models of deviant behavior among male army veterans.

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Maxwell School, Syracuse University, NY 13244, USA.


Measures of hormones (testosterone, cortisol and thyroxin) and of deviant or antisocial behavior are examined in a sample of 4179 Vietnam veterans. Hormone levels were found to vary with veterans' age, social status and race, and all three hormones were significantly related to deviant behavior. Biosocial models, combining hormonal variables with social background variables, tended to explain more variance in deviance than did traditional models based on social background alone. Several propositions regarding hormones and behavior were assessed. While the role of hormones in causing deviance remains unclear, it is argued that hormones should be included in models of deviant behavior.

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