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Int J Cancer. 1996 Apr 10;66(2):184-90.

Induction of antibodies reactive with GM2 ganglioside after immunization with lipopolysaccharides from Camplyobacter jejuni.

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Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.


Ganglioside GM2, expressed on the surface of some human cancers, is a promising target for immune therapy, since GM2 antibodies are cytotoxic, can be induced in humans by vaccination, and the presence of GM2 antibodies is associated with a better prognosis in melanoma patients. In our efforts to induce long-lived, cytotoxic GM2 antibodies, we investigated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) containing "GM2-like" oligosaccharides. LPS were prepared from Campylobacter jejuni serotypes O:1, O:23, or O:36 (all sharing the oligosaccharide structure GalNAcbeta1-4Gal(113NeuAc)-Hex with ganglioside GM2), and tested for their ability to induce GM2-reactive antibodies. Immunization of NZW rabbits (2 animals per vaccine) with LPS from C. jejuni serotype O:1 in Freund's adjuvant resulted in production of high-titer IgG antibodies reactive with purified bovine brain GM2 in ELISA, dot-blot immune strains and immune thin-layer chromatography, and with GM2 derived from various human tumors by immune thin-layer chromatography. These rabbit antibodies bound to cancer cell lines expressing GM2 on their cell surface, as determined by mixed hemadsorption assays, mediating strong antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with tumor cells expressing cell-surface GM2. Antibodies induced by vaccination with C. jejuni serotype O:1 were higher-titer (IgG ELISA titer > 1:60,000) than antibodies induced by immunization with purified GM2 (IgG ELISA titer > 1:200). Immunization with LPS from C. jejuni serotype O:36 resulted in production of moderately high-titer IgM and low-titer IgG GM2 antibodies. Immunization with LPS from C. jejuni serotype O:23 did not elicit GM2-reactive antibodies. No clinical symptoms were observed in animals immunized with these LPS preparations, with purified GM2 ganglioside, or with LPS derived from C. jejuni serotype O:19 (containing a GM1-like oligosaccharide). Our results indicate that lipopolysaccharides sharing carbohydrate epitopes with gangliosides may be useful immunogens for inducing antibodies to ganglioside antigens.

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