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J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Feb;106(2):269-74.

Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1), a novel retinoic acid receptor-responsive gene in skin.

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Retinoid Research, Departments of Biology and Chemistry, Allergan Incorporated, Irvine, CA 92713-9534, USA.


Retinoids exert their effect through ligand-dependent transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors (RARalpha, beta, and gamma) and retinoid X receptor (RXRalpha, beta, and gamma), which belong to the superfamily of steroid/thyroid/vitamin D3, nuclear receptors. Using a subtraction hybridization approach, we have identified a cDNA sequence, Tazarotene Induced Gene 1 (TIG1), which is highly upregulated in skin raft cultures by an RARbeta/gamma -selective retinoid AGN 190168 (tazarotene/ethyl 6-[2-(4,4-dimethylthiochroman-6-yl)-ethynyl]nicotinate), which is effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The retinoid-mediated upregulation in the expression of TIG1 was confirmed by Southern and Northern analyses. Upon sequencing, TIG1 was found to be a novel cDNA which encodes a protein of 228 amino acids whose sequence suggests that is a transmembrane protein with a small N-terminal intracellular region, a single membrane-spanning hydrophobic region, and a large C-terminal extracellular region containing a glycosylation signal. We demonstrate that TIG1 is also upregulated by AGN 190168 in skin raft cultures prepared from psoriatic fibroblasts and normal keratinocytes and in primary fibroblast and keratinocyte cultures. We also show that TIG1 is upregulated by retinoic acid receptor but not by retinoid X receptor-specific synthetic retinoids. Finally, we demonstrate that TIG1 is induced by AGN 190168 in psoriatic lesions during the course of clinical treatment of the disease.

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