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Vet Pathol. 1995 Nov;32(6):609-18.

Diagnosis of naturally occurring bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in ruminants using monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemistry.

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1
Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.

Abstract

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 50 spontaneous cases (39 bovine, nine ovine, two caprine) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection diagnosed by virus isolation were retrospectively examined for BVDV antigen by immunohistochemistry using anti-BVDV gp-43 monoclonal antibody (Mab 15C5). The cases were separated into enteric disease syndrome, respiratory disease syndrome, and abortion/weak calf syndrome based upon clinical disease. The purposes of the study were to 1) compare routine virus isolation with immunohistochemistry in determining BVDV infection and 2) define tissue and cellular distribution of BVDV in various clinical manifestations of infection. In bovids, there was 100% concordance of virus isolation and immunohistochemistry using Mab 15C5 in cases of enteric disease (mucosal disease, acute and chronic diarrhea, neonatal diarrhea), respiratory disease, and abortion. When laboratory tests were restricted to gastrointestinal tissue and/or feces, virus isolation detected BVDV in only 65% of cattle, whereas immunohistochemistry detected BVDV antigen in 100% of cattle. Immunohistochemical detection of pestivirus was poor in cases of ovine abortion, ovine hairy shaker syndrome, and caprine abortion. The tissue distribution of BVDV antigen was widespread in individual cattle with all clinical forms of BVDV infection. Viral antigen accumulation was spatially correlated with tissue lesions (in the absence of other pathogens) only in the gastrointestinal tract, lymphoid tissue, lung, placenta, and eye. This study demonstrates the utility of immunohistochemistry using Mab 15C5 to diagnose BVDV infections in cattle with a broad spectrum of clinical disease.

PMID:
8592795
DOI:
10.1177/030098589503200601
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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