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J Neurochem. 1996 Feb;66(2):537-48.

Lysophosphatidic acid-induced neurite retraction in PC12 cells: control by phosphoinositide-Ca2+ signaling and Rho.

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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Tennessee at Memphis 38163, USA.


The endogenous phospholipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) caused growth cone collapse, neurite retraction, and cell flattening in differentiated PC12 cells. Neurite retraction was blocked by cytochalasin B and ADP-ribosylation of the small-molecular-weight G protein Rho by the Clostridium botulinum C-3 toxin. LPA induced a transient rise in the level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and retraction was blocked by inhibitors of phospholipase beta. Repeated application of LPA elicited homologous desensitization of the Ca2+ mobilization response. The activation of the phosphoinositide (PIP)-Ca2+ second messenger system played a permissive role in the morphoregulatory response. Blockers of protein kinase C--chelerythrine, a myristoylated pseudosubstrate peptide, staurosporine, and depletion of protein kinase C from the cells by long-term phorbol ester treatment--all diminished neurite retraction by interfering with LPA-induced Ca2+ mobilization, which was required for the withdrawal of neurites. A brief 15-min treatment with 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also blocked retraction and Ca2+ mobilization, by inactivating the LPA receptor. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation by herbimycin diminished retraction. Although activation of the PIP-Ca2+ second messenger system appears necessary for the Rho-mediated rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, bradykinin, which activates similar signaling events, failed to cause retraction, indicating that a yet unidentified novel mechanism is also involved in the LPA-induced morphoregulatory response.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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