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Nat Genet. 1996 Mar;12(3):241-7.

Mutations in GPC3, a glypican gene, cause the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel overgrowth syndrome.

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Center for Genetics in Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.


Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked condition characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth with visceral and skeletal anomalies. To identify the causative gene, breakpoints in two female patients with X;autosome translocations were identified. The breakpoints occur near the 5' and 3' ends of a gene, GPC3, that spans more than 500 kilobases in Xq26; in three families, different microdeletions encompassing exons cosegregate with SGBS. GPC3 encodes a putative extracellular proteoglycan, glypican 3, that is inferred to play an important role in growth control in embryonic mesodermal tissues in which it is selectively expressed. Initial western- and ligand-blotting experiments suggest that glypican 3 forms a complex with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and might thereby modulate IGF2 action.

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