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J Urol. 1996 Mar;155(3):1133-8.

Bladder injury model induced in rats by exposure to protamine sulfate followed by bacterial endotoxin.

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Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego 92103-8897, USA.



A bladder injury model was developed using protamine sulfate (PS) and endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered intravesically to female Sprague-Dawley rats.


Experimental and control animals were catheterized and intravesically exposed to PS-LPS, PS, LPS, or phosphate buffered saline. After 4, 24 or 72 hours, rats were sacrificed. Urines and bladder tissues were then obtained. Bladder mucosal permeability was evaluated by measuring 14C-urea uptake 24 hours after injury. Repeated instillations of PS/LPS were also made in another group of rats over a period of 5 weeks to attempt to establish a more serious mucosal injury, possibly reflected by altered staining of the collagen IV component of the urinary basement membrane (UBM).


Histological examination of the tissues indicated a maximal inflammatory response in the mucosa 4 hours after instillation of PS/LPS. Neutrophils and macrophages in close proximity to the UBM and intraepithelially could be demonstrated. Bladder permeability was significantly altered (26.9% 14C-urea uptake) in rats assayed 24 hours after the PS/LPS treatment, but not after exposure to PS or LPS alone (11.9 and 17.5%, respectively). Protease activity detected in urines from experimental, but not control, animals coincided with the appearance of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. Inflammatory injury did not appear to alter the collagen IV staining of the UBM.


This rat bladder injury model is useful for examining controversial issues regarding bladder wall structure-function alterations induced by inflammation and possibly important in the pathobiological mechanisms involved in some patients with interstitial cystitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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