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Biophys J. 1995 Nov;69(5):2112-24.

New fluorescent calcium indicators designed for cytosolic retention or measuring calcium near membranes.

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Department of Zoology, University of Texas at Austin 78712-1064, USA.


A new family of fluorescent calcium indicators has been developed based on a new analog of BAPTA called FF6. This new BAPTA analog serves as a versatile synthetic intermediate for developing Ca2+ indicators targeted to specific intracellular environments. Two of these new Ca2+ indicators, fura-PE3 and fura-FFP18, are described in this report. Fura-PE3 is a zwitterionic indicator that resists the rapid leakage and compartmentalization seen with fura-2 and other polycarboxylate calcium indicators. In contrast to results obtained with fura-2, cells loaded with PE3 remain brightly loaded and responsive to changes in concentration of cytosolic free calcium for hours. Fura-FFP18 is an amphipathic indicator that to binds to liposomes and to cell membranes. Studies to be detailed later indicate that FFP18 functions as a near-membrane Ca2+ indicator and that calcium levels near the plasma membrane rise faster and higher than in the cytosol.

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