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Pain. 1995 Oct;63(1):77-84.

Development and initial validation of a scale to measure self-efficacy beliefs in patients with chronic pain.

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Department of Anesthesiology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA.


The present study describes the development of the Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale (CPSS), a 22-item questionnaire designed to measure chronic pain patients' perceived self-efficacy to cope with the consequences of chronic pain. The CPSS and other measures of psychosocial functioning were administered to 141 consecutive patients who were referred to an outpatient multidisciplinary pain treatment program. An exploratory factor analysis of the CPSS responses identified 3 factors: self-efficacy for pain management (PSE), self-efficacy for coping with symptoms (CSE), and self-efficacy for physical function (FSE). The CPSS then was administered to a replication sample of 136 chronic pain patients. Factor analysis confirmed the 3-factor structure of the CPSS. The subscale scores derived from the factor analysis were significantly correlated with measures of depression, hopelessness, somatic preoccupation, and adaptation to the chronic pain experience. Multiple regression analyses provided further support for the concurrent and construct validity of the CPSS. The scale may aid in the evaluation of the self-efficacy beliefs of chronic pain patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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