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J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 2;271(5):2776-82.

Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.


Human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m1 subtypes (m1 receptors) were expressed in and purified from insect Sf9 cells and then subjected to phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) expressed in and purified from Sf9 cells and by protein kinase C purified from rat brain (a mixture of alpha, beta, and gamma types, PKC). The m1 receptor was phosphorylated by either GRK2 or PKC in an agonist-dependent or independent manner, respectively. G protein beta gamma subunits stimulated the phosphorylation by GRK2 but did not affect the phosphorylation by PKC. The number of incorporated phosphates was 4.6 and 2.8 mol/mol of receptor for phoshorylation by GRK2 and PKC, respectively. The number of incorporated phosphates was 7.5 mol/mol receptor for phosphorylation by GRK2 followed by PKC, but was 5.8 mol/mol of receptor for the phosphorylation by PKC followed by GRK2. Major sites phosphorylated by GRK2 and PKC were located in the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl-terminal tail, respectively. These results indicate that GRK2 and PKC phosphorylate different sites of m1 receptors and that the phosphorylation by PKC partially inhibits the phosphorylation by GRK2, probably by affecting activation of GRK2 by agonist-bound receptors.

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