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Int Rev Cytol. 1996;164:269-327.

Microtubules and microtubule motors: mechanisms of regulation.

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Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, USA.


Microtubule-based motility is precisely regulated, and the targets of regulation may be the motor proteins, the microtubules, or both components of this intricately controlled system. Regulation of microtubule behavior can be mediated by cell cycle-dependent changes in centrosomal microtubule nucleating ability and by cell-specific, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Changes in microtubule organization and dynamics have been correlated with changes in phosphorylation. Regulation of motor proteins may be required both to initiate movement and to dictate its direction. Axonemal and cytoplasmic dyneins as well as kinesin can be phosphorylated and this modification may affect the motor activities of these enzymes or their ability to interact with organelles. A more complete understanding of how motors can be modulated by phosphorylation, either of the motor proteins or of other associated substrates, will be necessary in order to understand how bidirectional transport is regulated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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