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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1995 Sep;35(5):373-403.

Amylolytic enzymes and products derived from starch: a review.

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  • 1Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias (INIFAP-CAEB), México.


This review provides current information on starch and its molecular composition, common and potential sources, and manufacturing processes. It also deals with the five groups of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of starch: the endo- and exoamylases, which act primarily on the alpha-1,4 linkages; the debranching enzymes, which act on the alpha-1,6 linkages; the isomerases which convert glucose to fructose; and the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases which degrade starch by catalyzing cyclization and disproportionation reactions. This work mainly discusses the enzymatic processes for the manufacture of maltodextrins and corn syrup solids, including the production, both batch and continuous, of glucose syrup, and the processes to obtain sweeteners, such as maltose and 42, 55, and 90% high-fructose corn syrups. It highlights the novel production of Schardinger's dextrins: the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins, consisting of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. New products are emerging on the market that can serve as fat and oil substitutes, moisture-retention compounds, crystal-formation controllers, stabilizers for volatile materials like flavors and spices, or products for the pharmaceutical industry. As a result, particular attention is given to functional properties and applications of the above-cited compounds.

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