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Ann Intern Med. 1996 Feb 15;124(4):429-41.

Understanding intestinal spore-forming protozoa: cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora.

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Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.



To summarize recent information about the "new" gastrointestinal protozoal pathogens (cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora) and to help practicing clinicians integrate this information into their clinical databases by emphasizing the similarities among these organisms.


Relevant English-language articles published between 1988 and 1995 were identified through a MEDLINE search done using the names of the intestinal spore-forming protozoa. Articles cited in the bibliographies of these and other articles were searched manually.


Studies that contained information on the history, taxonomy, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the pathogens were reviewed.


Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Septata intestinalis are intestinal spore-forming protozoa that cause intracellular infections, predominantly in the epithelial cells of the intestine. They are transmitted either by stool from person to person or through contaminated water or food by an infectious particle called a spore or oocyst. Asymptomatic infections occur; the most common symptom of infection is diarrhea. Infections have been associated with intestinal inflammation, disordered architecture (such as villus blunting), and abnormal function (for example, malabsorption). Mild to moderate, self-limited diarrhea is common in healthy persons, but patients with immune dysfunction can have severe intestinal injury and prolonged diarrhea. Diagnosis is made by a microscopic examination of the stool and the use of appropriate staining techniques. Effective antibiotic treatment for prolonged infection in immunocompromised patients is available for most of these infections.


The intestinal spore-forming protozoa are four frequently identified gastrointestinal pathogens that have important similarities in epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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