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J Affect Disord. 1995 Aug 18;34(4):259-68.

Complex and rapid-cycling in bipolar children and adolescents: a preliminary study.

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  • 1Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.


26 subjects aged 7-18 years were studied. Diagnoses of bipolar disorders were established using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present Episode Version-1986 modified for DSM-III-R criteria and for rating the number and duration of manic and hypomanic episodes. Complex cycling patterns were observed. These included numerous brief episodes suggesting continuous rapid-cycling in 80.8% of cases. Mean age of onset was early (8.5 +/- 4.4 years). Psychotic phenomena, suicidality, hyperactivity and 'mixed mania' were highly prevalent. Data in this report provide support for complex and rapid-cycling patterns in childhood onset bipolar disorder.

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