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Atherosclerosis. 1995 Sep;117(1):125-38.

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced HL-60 macrophages: regulation of cholesterol and LDL metabolism.

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA.


Differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3) results in macrophages which exhibit specific and saturable receptor-mediated processing of both native and modified low density lipoprotein (LDL). Analysis of binding kinetics demonstrated that macrophages bind LDL and acetyl-LDL with similar affinities, yet possess significantly different numbers of receptors (55 +/- 6 x 10(3) LDL receptors/cell vs 79 +/- 7 x 10(3) acetyl-LDL receptors/cell). D3-induced HL-60 macrophages challenged with LDL or acetyl-LDL exhibited suppression of HMG-CoA reductase activity as well as a significant induction in the incorporation of [14C]oleate into cholesteryl ester compared with macrophages incubated with lipoprotein depleted serum. Maximum increases in ACAT activity were obtained in macrophages incubated with 25-hydroxycholesterol plus LDL or acetyl-LDL. The increase in ACAT activity in macrophages challenged with acetyl-LDL paralleled the increase in cellular cholesterol content and the increase of oil red O lipid stainable material, imparting the macrophages with a foamy appearance. The data indicate that D3-induced HL-60 macrophages are a useful model for the study of lipoprotein--macrophage interactions as related to foam cell development and atherogenesis.

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