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Arthroscopy. 1995 Oct;11(5):600-7.

Humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligaments as a cause of anterior shoulder instability.

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  • 1California Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Group, San Francisco 94118, USA.


The avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament labral complex at the glenoid (Bankart lesion), as well as ligamentous laxity are well known causes of anterior shoulder instability. A lesser known entity, the humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligaments (HAGL), was studied to determine its incidence and its role in anterior glenohumeral instability. Sixty-four shoulders with the diagnosis of anterior instability were prospectively evaluated by arthroscopy for intraarticular pathology, including Bankart, capsular laxity, and HAGL lesions. Six shoulders were found to have HAGL lesions (9.3%), 11 shoulders with generalized capsular laxity (17.2%), and 47 shoulders with Bankart lesions (73.5%). In patients with documented anterior instability without a demonstratable "primary" Bankart lesion, a HAGL lesion should be ruled out. This lesion is readily recognized arthroscopically, and an appropriate repair of this lesion can restore anterior stability to the patient. The pathological anatomy of the HAGL lesion and our treatment of this lesion is discussed.

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