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Arch Intern Med. 1996 Jan 8;156(1):61-7.

Effect of potassium supplementation on blood pressure in African Americans on a low-potassium diet. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Author information

1
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, & Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Md., USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the effect of potassium supplementation on blood pressure in African Americans consuming a low-potassium diet.

DESIGN:

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms.

SETTING:

Community-based research site.

PARTICIPANTS:

Eighty-seven healthy African Americans aged 27 to 65 years with a systolic blood pressure between 100 and 159 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure between 70 and 94 mm Hg.

INTERVENTION:

During the 21-day intervention period, all participants were provided with a low-potassium diet (32 to 35 mmol/d). In addition to this diet, they were randomly assigned to receive either potassium supplements (80 mmol/d) or placebo.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Change in blood pressure in the potassium vs the placebo group, based on a total of nine blood pressure readings at three visits. Blood pressures were taken before and during the intervention by means of random-zero sphygmomanometry.

RESULTS:

At baseline, the placebo and potassium groups were similar for mean blood pressure (127/78 vs 125/77 mm Hg), 24-hour urinary potassium excretion (50 vs 44 mmol), and all other variables measured (all P > .05). During the intervention, the net difference in 24-hour urinary potassium excretion between groups was 70 mmol. Compared with the placebo group, the potassium supplementation group experienced a net decline in systolic blood pressure of 6.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -9.3 to -4.4 mm Hg; P < .001) and a decline in diastolic blood pressure of 2.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -4.3 to -0.8 mm Hg; P = .004). Simultaneous adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics only strengthened these estimates.

CONCLUSIONS:

Potassium supplementation reduces blood pressure substantially in African Americans consuming a diet low in potassium. Increased potassium intake may play an important role in reducing blood pressure in this population at high risk for hypertension.

PMID:
8526698
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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