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J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995 Aug;27(8):1491-506.

Nicotine-induced exocytotic norepinephrine release in guinea-pig heart, human atrium and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: modulation by single components of ischaemia.

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1
Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

The influence of single components of myocardial ischaemia, such as anoxia, substrate withdrawal, hyperkalemia and extracellular acidosis, on nicotine-induced norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated in the isolated perfused guinea-pig heart, in incubated human atrial tissue and in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCC). In normoxia, nicotine (1-1000 mumol/l) evoked a concentration-dependent release of NE (determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection) from guinea-pig heart and human atrium. In contrast to selective anoxia (Po2 < 5 mmHg) or glucose withdrawal, respectively, anoxia in combination with glucose withdrawal (5-40 min) markedly potentiated nicotine-induced NE release both in guinea-pig heart and human atrium. The sensitization of cardiac sympathetic nerve endings to nicotine was characterized by a lower threshold concentration and an approximate two-fold increase of maximum NE release, peaking after 10 min of anoxia and glucose withdrawal. Cyanide intoxication (1 mmol/l) combined with glucose withdrawal resulted in a similar increase of nicotine-induced sympathetic transmitter release both in guinea-pig heart and human atrium. In contrast, the nicotine-induced (10 mumol/l) NE overflow was only slightly potentiated by 10 min of global ischaemia in guinea-pig heart. Both hyperkalemia ([K+] 16 mmol/l) and acidosis (pH 6.8-6.0) distinctly attenuated the stimulatory effect of nicotine in guinea-pig heart and human atrium under normoxic conditions. Consistent with an exocytotic release mechanism, NE release was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium under all conditions tested. Furthermore, NE overflow from guinea-pig heart was accompanied by a release of the exocytosis marker neuropeptide Y (NPY; determined by radioimmunoassay). In BCC, nicotine (1-10 mumol/l) evoked a release of NE and NPY and a transient rise of [Ca2+]i (determined with fura-2) during normoxia which were both dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. Both hyperkalemia and acidosis markedly reduced the exocytotic release of sympathetic transmitters and the corresponding [Ca2+]i-transients. These data demonstrate that nicotine-induced cardiac exocytotic NE release is markedly potentiated during short-term anoxia in combination with glucose withdrawal. In contrast, a brief period of ischaemia causes only a slight sensitization of cardiac sympathetic nerve endings to nicotine. This discrepancy may be due to an attentuation of nicotine-evoked NE release by hyperkalemia and by acidosis. The protective effect of these factors against anoxia-induced sensitization to nicotine appears to be related to the inhibition of nicotine-evoked [Ca2+]i-transients.

PMID:
8523413
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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