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Int J Cardiol. 1995 Aug;51(1):29-35.

The aetiology of heart failure in the Chinese population of Hong Kong--a prospective study of 730 consecutive patients.

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Department of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong.


Heart failure is a common and serious condition in many parts of the world and is a frequent cause for hospital admission in the Chinese population of Hong Kong. There is no published information on the epidemiology of heart failure in this community or from mainland China. Therefore, a prospective study of consecutive patients admitted with the clinical diagnosis of heart failure has been carried out to identify the main risk factors or possible causes, and other clinical data. Seven-hundred thirty consecutive patients with cardiac failure were identified and studied. Standard clinical criteria were used for diagnosis and identification of the main or most likely aetiologies and echocardiography was done in 30%. The data analysis of the 730 patients showed the following. The majority were females (56%) and the prevalence of heart failure increased with age (mean age 73.5 +/- 11.7 years) with 76% of the women > 70 years old. In contrast, the men were younger with 40% < 70 years old. The main identifiable risk factors were hypertension (37%), ischemic heart disease (31%), valvular heart disease (15%), cor pulmonale (27%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (4%), and miscellaneous (10%). In women, hypertension was the commonest cause at all ages but in men aged < 70 years ischemic heart disease was equal in frequency to hypertension (36% and 35%, respectively). Twenty-one percent had diabetes compared to a community rate of 10% for this age group (odds ratio 2.25, P < 0.0001). There was considerable overlap between diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The estimated incidence rate was 3.8/1000 women and 3.0/1000 men aged > 45 years old.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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