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Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Jul;22(7):1114-8.

Clinical predictors of post-traumatic seizures in children with head trauma.

Author information

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

To determine the clinical characteristics associated with early post-traumatic seizures in children with head trauma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND TYPE OF PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective chart review; urban trauma center/pediatric emergency department. Trauma patients aged 3 months to 15 years given discharge diagnosis ICD-9-CM codes indicating head trauma and seen from 1988 to 1990 were eligible for the study.

INTERVENTIONS:

None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Of 194 patients, 96% suffered blunt trauma and 53% had a loss of consciousness. Fifty-one percent of 141 computed tomography (CT) scans of the head were abnormal, most frequently demonstrating skull fractures (34%), subdural hematomas (15%), and cerebral contusions (14%). Eighteen patients (9.3%) suffered post-traumatic seizures. A loss of consciousness, a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (3 to 8), and an abnormal CT scan were associated with post-traumatic seizures (P < .02, .001, and .02, respectively). However, only a low GCS score was predictive of post-traumatic seizures when these factors were considered simultaneously (P < .001), with 38.7% of patients with low GCS scores suffering post-traumatic seizures and 3.8% of patients with high GCS scores suffering post-traumatic seizures. In children with low GCS scores, treatment with phenytoin was associated with a decrease in post-traumatic seizures.

CONCLUSION:

In the pediatric head trauma patient, a GCS score of 3 to 8 appears to be predictive of post-traumatic seizures. The data from this retrospective study are consistent with the hypothesis that prophylactic phenytoin reduces post-traumatic seizures in the pediatric head trauma patient with a low GCS score.

PMID:
8517559
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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