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J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993 Jul;51(7):742-7; discussion 748-9.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction.

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Stanford University Medical Center, CA.


A surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is presented. Two hundred thirty-nine consecutively treated patients were evaluated. All patients underwent a presurgical evaluation that included a physical examination, fiberoptic pharyngoscopy, cephalometric analysis, and polygraphic monitoring. The goal of the presurgical evaluation was to document sleep apnea and isolate the area of obstruction. The treatment was then directed to the obstructive site. The surgical protocol included two phases. Phase 1 was a conservative approach and included uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and/or mandibular osteotomy with genioglossus advancement-hyoid myotomy and suspension. Polysomnography was repeated at 6 months and patients with unsuccessful surgical results were offered maxillary-mandibular advancement osteotomy. Results were based on the postoperative polysomnograms, and included assessing changes in both sleep architecture and sleep-disordered breathing. The surgical results were compared with results in patients who were using nasal continuous positive airway pressure. The surgical success rate for the 239 patients entered into phase 1 therapy was 61% (145 patients). Twenty-four patients who failed phase 1 treatment elected phase 2 treatment. The surgical success rate of this phase was 100%.

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