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Plant Mol Biol. 1993 May;22(2):195-205.

Structure of the amplified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in glyphosate-resistant carrot cells.

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  • 1Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801.


The structure of amplified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) DNA of carrot suspension-cultured cell lines selected for glyphosate resistance was analyzed to determine the mechanism of gene amplification in this plant system. Southern hybridization of the amplified DNA digested with several restriction enzymes probed with a petunia EPSPS cDNA clone showed that there were differences in fragment sizes in the amplified DNA from one highly resistant cell line in comparison with the parental line. Cloning of the EPSPS gene and 5' flanking sequences was carried out and two different DNA structures were revealed. A 13 kb clone contained only one copy of the EPSPS gene while a 16 kb clone contained an inverted duplication of the gene. Southern blot analysis with a carrot DNA probe showed that only the uninverted repeated DNA structure was present in all of the cell lines during the selection process and the inverted repeat (IR) was present only in highly amplified DNA. The two structures were present in about equal amounts in the highly amplified line, TC 35G, where the EPSPS gene was amplified about 25-fold. The presence of the inverted repeat (IR) was further verified by resistance to S1 nuclease hydrolysis after denaturation and rapid renaturation, showing foldback DNA with the IR length being 9.5 kb. The junction was also sequenced. Mapping of the clones showed that the size of the amplified carrot EPSPS gene itself is about 3.5 kb. This is the first report of an IR in amplified DNA of a target enzyme gene in selected plant cells.

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