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J Biol Chem. 1993 Jun 5;268(16):11803-10.

Lipopolysaccharide induces phosphorylation of MAD3 and activation of c-Rel and related NF-kappa B proteins in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232.


Many effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gene expression, including that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in monocytic cells are mediated by activation of kappa B DNA-binding proteins. However, the specific members of the NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factor family involved in the LPS response, and the mechanisms through which LPS-generated signals are transduced remain unclear. Here we show that LPS induces nuclear expression of c-Rel/p50 heterodimers as well as p50/p65 (NF-kappa B) kappa B DNA-binding complexes in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Nuclear localization of these proteins occurred concomitantly with a rapid decrease in their cytosolic levels and was independent of phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C. Within 24 h following LPS stimulation there was a striking increase in the levels of c-Rel, p105, and p50 in the cytosol. The increased levels of these proteins correlated with increases in the amounts of their mRNAs during LPS activation of THP-1 cells. LPS activation of THP-1 cells resulted in phosphorylation of MAD3 (an I kappa B-like protein), a rapid increase in MAD3 mRNA, and an increase in MAD3 protein by 2 h. Thus, LPS activation of human monocytic cells results in nuclear expression of c-Rel/p50 and p50/p65 (NF-kappa B) and induces phosphorylation of MAD3.

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