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Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Apr;2(4):373-7.

Heterogeneity in the mutations responsible for X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome.

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Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine (CNRS URA 1445) Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.


Kallmann syndrome represents the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia. Three modes of transmission, X chromosome-linked, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant, have been described. The KAL gene, responsible for the X-linked form of the disease, has been isolated and its intron-exon organization recently determined. We have searched for mutations of the KAL gene in 21 unrelated males affected by familial Kallmann syndrome. In these families, segregation of the disease was suggestive of the X-linked mode of transmission. In 2 families, large Xp22.3 deletions, both including the entire KAL gene, have been detected by Southern blot analysis. Here we report the sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the KAL gene in the 19 remaining patients. The approach consisted of sequencing each of the 14 coding exons and splice site junctions. Each exon was amplified by PCR on the genomic DNA, using oligonucleotides from the flanking intronic sequences as specific primers. Nine point mutations were identified at separate locations in four exons and one splice site, providing strong evidence for heterogeneity in mutations responsible for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome. In addition, the high frequency of unilateral renal aplasia in X-linked Kallmann patients (6 out of 11 males with identified alterations of the KAL gene) should be emphasized.

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