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Med Phys. 1993 Mar-Apr;20(2 Pt 1):415-25.

A geometrically accurate vascular phantom for comparative studies of x-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance vascular imaging: construction and geometrical verification.

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Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.


A technique for producing accurate models of vascular segments for use in experiments that assess vessel geometry and flow has been developed and evaluated. The models are compatible with x-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems. In this paper, a model of the human carotid artery bifurcation, is evaluated that has been built using this technique. The phantom consists of a thin-walled polyester-resin replica of the bifurcation through which a blood-mimicking fluid may be circulated. The phantom is surrounded by an agar tissue-mimicking material and a series of fiducial markers. The blood- and tissue-mimicking materials have x-ray, ultrasound, and MR properties similar to blood and tissue; fiducial markers provide a means of aligning images acquired by different modalities. The root-mean-square difference between the inner wall geometry of the constructed model and the desired dimensions was 0.33 mm. Static images were successfully acquired using x-ray, ultrasound, and MR imaging systems, and are free of significant artifacts. Flow images acquired with ultrasound and MR agree qualitatively with each other, and with previously published flow patterns. Volume-flow measurements obtained with ultrasound and MR were within 4.4% of the actual values.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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