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J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993 Apr 15;202(8):1266-72.

Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs by continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin.

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Department of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849.

Erratum in

  • J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993 Jun 1;202(11):1866.


In a prospective clinical trial, low-dose, continuous, IV infusion of insulin (dosage, 2.2 U/kg of body weight, q 24 h) was used to treat 21 dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis. Mean (+/- SD) blood glucose concentration at the onset of treatment was 550 +/- 150 mg/dl and after 6 hours, was 350 +/- 106 mg/dl, with a mean decline of 34 +/- 16 mg/dl/h. By 12 hours, mean blood glucose was 246 +/- 85 mg/dl, with a mean decline of 28 +/- 14 mg/dl/h during the second 6 hours of treatment. Mean duration of treatment required to reach a blood glucose concentration < or = 250 mg/dl was 10 +/- 4 hours, with a range of 4 to 24 hours. Ketonuria was observed for 26 +/- 14 hours (range, 6 to 72 hours). Hypoglycemia developed in 3 of 21 dogs during treatment, but responded to IV administration of a glucose solution and to a reduction in rate of insulin delivery. Potassium supplementation was required in 15 of 21 dogs. Mean bicarbonate concentration was 11.6 +/- 3.4 mEq/L before treatment and was 18.2 +/- 0.7 mEq/L after 24 hours. Fifteen of 21 dogs (71%) survived to be discharged. Mean duration of treatment with the insulin infusion was 50 +/- 30 hours (range, 7 to 124 hours). In this series of dogs, continuous, low-dose, IV infusion of insulin provided a gradual and consistent reduction in blood glucose concentration while ketoacidosis, electrolyte balance, and dehydration were corrected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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