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Pharmacokinetics and extracellular distribution to blood, brain, and muscle of alovudine (3'-fluorothymidine) and zidovudine in the rat studied by microdialysis.

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1
Department of Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Microdialysis was applied to sample the free drug concentration in the extracellular fluid in brain, muscle, and blood of rats given alovudine (n = 6) (3'-fluorothymidine) or zidovudine (n = 5) (25 mg/kg s.c.). Alovudine and zidovudine were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The assay for zidovudine was validated by a radioimmunoassay. In addition, the plasma protein binding of the drugs was measured by microdialysis in vitro. The concentrations attained in blood and muscle were similar for each drug, with a Cmax of 57 microM (blood) and 54 microM (muscle) for alovudine and 38 and 46 microM, respectively, for zidovudine. In contrast the Cmax in brain was 8 microM for alovudine and 4 microM for zidovudine. The peak concentration was attained 20-40 min after injection in blood and muscle and 40-60 min after injection in the brain. The half-lives of zidovudine in both blood and muscle were 37 min and in brain 69 min. For alovudine the corresponding half-lives were significantly longer: 61, 58, and 105 min, respectively. The ratio of the AUC0-180 brain/blood was 0.257 for alovudine and 0.186 for zidovudine. The plasma protein binding of zidovudine was 10%, while alovudine was virtually unbound.

PMID:
8483107
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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