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J Biol Chem. 1993 Apr 25;268(12):8801-7.

ARD 1, a 64-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein with a carboxyl-terminal ADP-ribosylation factor domain.

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Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.


Clones referred to as ARD 1 were isolated from human and rat cDNA libraries. ARD 1 genes encode a putative 64-kDa protein that contains an 18-kDa ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) domain at the carboxyl terminus and is much larger than the other monomeric approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding ARF proteins thus far identified. ARD 1 mRNAs of 3.7 and 4.1 kilobases were detected in all rat tissues as well as in mouse and rabbit brain, human fibroblasts, and human neuroblastoma cells but not in HL-60 cells. Based on sequence identities, ARD 1 is highly conserved between rat and human. The ARF domain of ARD 1 contains the consensus sequences believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding, which are conserved in the ARFs and other GTP-binding proteins. Recombinant ARD 1 or the ARF domain of ARD 1, which lacks the 15 amino acids corresponding to the amino-terminal regions of ARFs stimulated, in a GTP-dependent manner, cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in the presence of 0.3% Tween 20. It had no effect in the presence of SDS, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/cholate, or cardiolipin. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the amino-terminal region of ARF proteins is not required for activation of cholera toxin. In addition, the characteristic features of ARF proteins may be found as domains of larger mammalian proteins.

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