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Eur J Epidemiol. 1993 Jan;9(1):17-25.

Lifetime menstrual activity--indicator of breast cancer risk.

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National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.


A case-control study of 67 cases of breast cancer and 157 controls was conducted to investigate the role of different behavioral, reproductive, and hormonal factors and to develop a unifying indicator of breast cancer risk. The results confirm previous reports of the influence of smoking on the risk of breast cancer. Age at menarche was found to be a risk factor among the premenopausal women. Late age at menopause was suggestive of an increase in risk. Long use of oral contraceptive or estrogen supplementation were risk-enhancing both pre- and postmenopausally. Lifetime duration of menstrual activity (LMA) combines age at menarche and menopause, parity, and lactation into a biologically plausible model. Our findings concerning LMA support its role as a determinant of breast cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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