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Crit Rev Toxicol. 1993;23(1):1-20.

Bioactivation of halogenated hydrocarbons by cytochrome P4502E1.

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Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131.


Numerous halogenated hydrocarbons of the alkane, alkene, and alkyne classes are metabolized by P450 enzymes to products that elicit cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic effects. Such halogenated hydrocarbons include anesthetics (e.g., halothane and enflurane) and industrial solvents (e.g., carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and vinylidine chloride). Formation of reaction intermediates from these compounds occurs via P450-promoted dehalogenation, reduction, or reductive oxygenation, with certain hydrocarbons undergoing all three reaction types. Of the multiple forms of P450 present in liver microsomes, P4502E1 has been identified as the primary catalyst of hydrocarbon bioactivation in animals and, most likely, in humans as well. As hepatic concentrations of this P450 enzyme are highly inducible by ethanol and similar agents, prior exposure to 2E1-inducing compounds can play a pivotal role in halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity. Considering that metabolism governs the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of halogenated hydrocarbons, an understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying 2E1 induction in man becomes all the more important.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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