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Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993 Feb;8(2):171-6.

Psychological effects of MDE in normal subjects. Are entactogens a new class of psychoactive agents?

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Department of Psychiatry, Christophsbad, Göppingen, Germany.


The so-called entactogens 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ([MDMA] also known as "Ecstasy," or "Adam") and its analog 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine ([MDE] also known as "Eve") exert similar psychotropic effects in humans. Two double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric studies with normal control subjects were conducted. Placebo or MDE (140 mg) was administered orally to eight male volunteers at 1:30 P.M. and to six subjects (3 male, 3 female) at 11 P.M. Psychologic tests and clinical ratings were performed 1 hour before the administration of the drugs, as well as 2, 5, and 24 hours after drug intake and 7 days thereafter in the first study. In the second study, measures were taken at times -1, +8.5, +24 hours, and +7 days. The majority of the psychotropic effects resembled those that have already been described in anecdotal reports. The substance produced a partially controllable state of enhanced insight, empathy, and peaceful feelings. All subjects displayed a general stimulation with increased psychomotor drive, logorrhea, and facilitation of communication. One of the fourteen volunteers developed a toxic psychosis. One volunteer displayed a dysphoric reaction, one suffered from episodes of anxiety for some days after the experiment. The findings support the hypothesis that MDMA and MDE represent a novel pharmacologic class.

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