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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1993 Jan;40(1):29-34.

Using compound electrodes in electrical impedance tomography.

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Applied Research Group, Siemens Gammasonics Inc., IL 60195.


In electrical impedance tomography, we inject currents and measure voltages to estimate an object's resistivity distribution. The electrode configuration affects measured voltage data because the electrode-skin contact impedance is high and varies with electrode location. We developed a compound electrode which is composed of two electrodes: a large outer electrode to inject current and a small inner electrode to sense voltage. We used these compound electrodes to measure voltages from a physical phantom. We showed that the measured voltages from the compound electrodes are smaller in amplitude than those from conventional electrodes. This demonstrates that the compound electrode can minimize contact impedance voltage drop from the measured data. We used a finite element model for the compound electrode and incorporated the model into the regularized Newton-Raphson reconstruction algorithm. We performed a sensitivity study and showed that the reconstructed resistivity distributions are less dependent on the unknown contact resistance values for a compound electrode than a conventional electrode and that the use of a compound electrode results in improved images for the reconstruction algorithm.

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