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N Engl J Med. 1977 Apr 28;296(17):968-71.

Visual lung-sound characterization by time-expanded wave-form analysis.

Abstract

To characterize lung sounds objectively, we examined, by means of time-amplitude plots, selected tape recordings of auscultatory phenomena considered by six observers to be typical of those in a standard classification. Normal lung sounds could not consistently be visually distinguished from adventitious sounds at conventional chart recorder speeds of 100 mm per second or less, but the differentiation was easily achieved when the time scale of the plots was raised to 800 mm per second. When discontinuous sounds (rales, crackles or crepitations) were heard clinically, the time-expanded wave forms showed intermittent "discontinuous" deflections usually less than 10 msec in duration. When continuous sounds (rhonchi or wheezes) were heard, the deflections were usually more than 250 msec. Time-expanded wave form analysis provides reproducible visual displays that allow documentation of the differentiating features of lung sounds and enhances the diagnostic utility of the sounds.

PMID:
846543
DOI:
10.1056/NEJM197704282961704
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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