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Am J Med Genet. 1993 Jan 15;45(2):201-6.

Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta.

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Kennedy-Galton Centre, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom.


The main mode of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is fetal imaging, either by radiography or detailed ultrasonography. Radiography is more of historical interest and ultrasonography is in practice virtually exclusively used for non-invasive second trimester diagnosis of OI. Both methods have also been reported later in pregnancy when diagnosis allows the most appropriate method of delivery to be planned. For example, a caesarean section can be avoided if the fetus is shown to have a form of OI associated with limited survival. Ultrasonography is useful mainly for prenatal diagnosis of the severe forms of OI, especially the perinatally lethal forms (Sillence type II) and to a lesser extent for the severe progressively deforming forms (Sillence types III and III/IV). For the milder varieties of OI (Sillence types I and IV), many cases will be missed by scans. Invasive methods of prenatal diagnosis of OI (principally chorion villous sampling) are used for families with the milder dominant forms of OI and in severe forms of OI in which the actual biochemical or molecular defect in type I collagen is known. Many cases of type II OI and a few of type III have now been reported which were detected by scans before 20 weeks gestation, the earliest being at 15 weeks, for type IIA OI. These include cases not only at genetic risk but also sporadic cases in which scans were done either routinely or for obstetric indications. The ultrasonic abnormalities which are found include reduced echogenicity, multiple fractures, and deformity of the long bones, ribs and skull.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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