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J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 25;268(9):6338-47.

Overexpression of protein kinase C isoenzymes alpha, beta I, gamma, and epsilon in cells overexpressing the insulin receptor. Effects on receptor phosphorylation and signaling.

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Department of Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305.


Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the human insulin receptor were transfected with cDNAs encoding protein kinase C isoenzymes alpha, beta I, gamma, and epsilon as well as an inactive alpha. Overexpression of these protein kinase Cs did not affect expression of the insulin receptor or insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor. However, in response to phorbol esters, cells overexpressing isoenzymes alpha, beta I, and gamma, but not epsilon or inactive alpha, exhibited 3-4-fold higher levels of insulin receptor phosphorylation. This increased phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines and threonine. Tryptic peptide maps indicated that this phosphorylation was primarily on serines 1305/1306 and threonine 1348 as well as several other unidentified sites. This phorbol ester-stimulated phosphorylation did not inhibit activation of the insulin receptor kinase when the receptor was activated in situ but assayed in vitro. However, in cells overexpressing protein kinase C alpha, it did inhibit an in vivo monitor of the activation of the insulin receptor kinase, the insulin-stimulated increase in anti-phosphotyrosine-precipitable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. These results indicate that increased protein kinase C alpha activity can inhibit insulin-stimulated responses and support the hypothesis that excessive protein kinase C is involved in the insulin resistance observed in non-insulin-dependent diabetics.

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