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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1993 Feb;17(1):19-34.

Evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of pesticides. 4. Chloroalkylthiodicarboximide compounds with fungicidal activity.

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Health Effects Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460.


The Health Effects Division of the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) assessed the carcinogenic potential of three structurally related chloroalkylthiodicarboximide fungicides using a consensus peer review process and EPA's 1986 guidelines for cancer risk assessment. All of the fungicides were categorized as Group B2 (probable human) carcinogens based upon findings of an increased incidence of malignant tumors, or combined malignant and benign tumors, in multiple experiments involving different strains of mice and rats. The primary sites of tumor formation with the chloroalkylthiodicarboximide fungicides in male and/or female mice (CD-1 and B6C3F1) were the gastrointestinal tract (captan, folpet, and captafol), the lymph system (folpet and captafol), and the vascular system (captafol). The main sites of tumor formation in rats of one or both sexes (CR CD, Wistar, or F344 strains) were the kidney (Captan and captafol), uterus (captan), mammary gland and liver (captafol). In addition, positive trends for thyroid, testicular, mammary gland, and lymph node tumors were observed with folpet in the same strains of rats. All three of the compounds exhibited positive mutagenic activity in a variety of in vitro short-term tests for gene mutation, DNA repair, and chromosomal aberrations in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but were not genotoxic in available studies performed under in vivo conditions. The assessment of human cancer risk for captan, folpet, and captafol was made using low-dose extrapolation models.

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