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Ann Pharmacother. 1993 Feb;27(2):215-23.

Assessing the quality of pharmaceutical care. II. Application of concepts of quality assessment from medical care.

Author information

1
Rackham School of Graduate Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1065.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To present a framework that facilitates quality assessment of pharmaceutical care (PC) so that the profession and the public may identify pharmacists in ambulatory settings who provide quality care in all aspects of the their practices.

DATA SOURCES:

A MEDLINE search augmented by a review of International Pharmacy Abstracts was used to identify pertinent quality assessment and pharmacy practice literature; indexing terms included quality assurance, healthcare, pharmacists, community pharmacy services, ambulatory, pharmacy, and process and outcome assessment.

STUDY SELECTION:

All identified quality assessments of community pharmacy practice were considered. Studies that documented the effectiveness of specific pharmacist activities and patient satisfaction were also included.

DATA EXTRACTION:

The literature was independently reviewed by the primary author.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

The structure-process-outcome paradigm is presented as a framework for quality assessment of PC. Structure should be assessed at periodic intervals because it identifies the potential for the provision of quality care. Process, the care that pharmacists provide, must be documented and linked to outcomes before either structure or process can be used to make inferences about the quality of PC. Technical and interpersonal processes should be examined. Outcomes require an interdisciplinary approach that not only considers other medical care inputs but also recognizes the psychologic, economic, and social factors that affect health status and quality of life. Process and outcome must both be assessed to distinguish the contribution of pharmacists from that of other healthcare providers. Examples of criteria are provided and a model to integrate PC within the healthcare system is discussed.

CONCLUSIONS:

It is pharmacists' duty to ensure that patients receive an acceptable level of PC. The structure-process-outcome paradigm provides a framework to identify and link pharmacists' processes with patients' outcomes.

PMID:
8439702
DOI:
10.1177/106002809302700218
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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