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Int J Cancer. 1993 Feb 20;53(4):601-7.

Cigarette smoking, alcohol, tea and coffee consumption and pancreas cancer risk: a case-control study from Opole, Poland.

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Cancer Control and Epidemiology Department, Maria-Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw, Poland.


A population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer was undertaken in Opole, Poland, within the framework of the SEARCH Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer: this is the first aetiological study of pancreas cancer reported from Poland where the reported mortality rate has doubled since 1963. This study of pancreas cancer has provided some further supporting evidence of an association between increased pancreas risk with increasing levels of cigarette smoking. The risk rose with increasing lifetime cigarette consumption with a trend which was weakly significant (p = 0.061). Findings regarding lifetime tea and coffee consumption were not consistent with intake of either beverage increasing the risk of this disease. There was a strongly significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing lifetime consumption of tea (p < 0.001), which was also apparent when the analysis was restricted to subjects who were interviewed directly. For coffee consumption, which is low in Poland, there was also a negative association apparent in the data which was not statistically significant among the sub-set of subjects who were directly interviewed. The findings regarding alcoholic beverages were overall null, although the weakly positive trend in risk with spirits consumption (p = 0.71) may deserve further investigation in view of the special nature of the source of spirits (vodka) in Poland.

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