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Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1993;24(3):227-39.

Hormone resistance, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in breast cancer.

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Vincent T. Lombardi Cancer Research Center, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC 20007.


Critical phenotypic changes that occur during the progression of breast cancer include the loss of hormone-dependence, acquired resistance to systemic therapies, and increased metastatic potential. We have isolated a series of MCF-7 human breast cancer variants which exhibit hormone-independent growth, antiestrogen resistance, and increased metastatic potential. Analysis of the phenotypes of these variants strongly suggests that changes in the expression of specific genes may be critical to the generation of phenotypic diversity in the process of malignant progression in breast cancer. Epigenetic changes may contribute significantly to the generation of these phenotypic changes observed during breast cancer progression. Many of the characteristics of the progressed phenotypes appear to have arisen in response to appropriate selective pressures (growth in ovariectomized nude mice; growth in the presence of antiestrogens). These observations are consistent with the concept of clonal selection and expansion in the process of malignant progression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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