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Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Feb;22(2 Pt 2):440-4.

Pediatric airway control and ventilation.

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Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.


Emphasis on a clear airway is a primary requisite for effective CPR. Airway control in the trauma victim needs special consideration of the possibility of associated cervical vertebrae and spinal cord injury; thus, modification of the patient positioning for transport is essential. Emphasis on visualization of chest movement is the most important factor in assessing adequacy of ventilation. Experience in the use of bag-valve-mask devices requires appropriate instruction and on-going practice. Small bag volume devices limit the ability to provide adequate tidal volumes and prolong inspiratory times. Tracheal intubation provides optimal airway management. In-field use of this procedure will depend upon the skill and experience of the operator. Validation of correctness of tracheal tube placement is critical; seeing the tube pass the glottic opening on laryngoscopy, bilateral and equal chest movement, auscultation of breath sounds in the chest. Methods to measure end-tidal CO2 as a valuable check for tube position is a useful adjunct but must not be relied upon. Foreign body management continues to be controversial and remains unchanged for the present; ie, the infant < 1 year of age the recommendations are back blows followed by chest thrusts. Above 1 year of age, abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) is recommended.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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