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Mem Cognit. 1993 Jan;21(1):89-102.

Remembering and knowing: two means of access to the personal past.

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Department of Neurology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140.


The nature of recollective experience was examined in a recognition memory task. Subjects gave "remember" judgments to recognized items that were accompanied by conscious recollection and "know" judgments to items that were recognized on some other basis. Although a levels-of-processing effect (Experiment 1) and a picture-superiority effect (Experiment 2) were obtained for overall recognition, these effects occurred only for "remember" judgments, and were reversed for "know" judgments. In Experiment 3, targets and lures were either preceded by a masked repetition of their own presentation (thought to increase perceptual fluency) or of an unrelated word. The effect of perceptual fluency was obtained for overall recognition and "know" judgments but not for "remember" judgments. The data obtained for confidence judgments using the same design (Experiment 4) indicated that "remember"/"know" judgments are not made solely on the basis of confidence. These data support the two-factor theories of recognition memory by dissociating two forms of recognition, and shed light on the nature of conscious recollection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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