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J Invest Dermatol. 1993 Feb;100(2 Suppl):209S-213S.

Hydrogen peroxide as an inducer of elevated tyrosinase level in melanoma cells.

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1
Department of Dermatology, University of Lund, Sweden.

Abstract

The effects of systems generating active oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical) on tyrosinase have been studied in cultured human melanoma cells. Tyrosinase activity was determined by measuring the quantity of 5-S-L-cysteinyl-L-dopa (5-S-CD) formed in the presence of D,L-dopa and L-cysteine. In some experiments, the enzyme protein was determined by radio immunoassay [RIA]. Exposure of cells to xanthine/xanthine oxidase or glucose/glucose oxidase resulted in a dose-related elevation of tyrosinase. Catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, prevented this increase indicating that hydrogen peroxide may be the agent responsible for the action, whereas superoxide anion is not involved. Hydroxyl radicals formed by the Haber-Weiss or Fenton type reactions were not found to produce elevation of tyrosinase. Catalase determinations showed no enzyme in the medium but a high concentration in the cells. Inhibition of intracellular catalase by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole caused an increase in the tyrosinase level. The effects of dopac, xanthine/xanthine oxidase, and glucose/glucose oxidase all producing hydrogen peroxide, and increasing tyrosinase, were enhanced by the inhibition of catalase. It is concluded that hydrogen peroxide, formed by the systems, accounts for the elevation of tyrosinase level. When tyrosinase activities determined by 5-S-CD formation were compared to enzyme amounts found by RIA, the ratios of these values were always constant. This fact indicates that the increase in the tyrosinase activities was not due to an activation of the enzyme, but mirrored the quantities of enzyme protein present in the samples. On the basis of our findings, it is assumed that hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of tyrosinase in normal melanocytes and melanoma cells.

PMID:
8433009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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