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Pharm Res. 1993 Jan;10(1):119-25.

Sustained bronchodilation with isoproterenol poly(glycolide-co-lactide) microspheres.

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University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Lexington 40536-0082.


An animal study was carried out to evaluate the in vivo bronchodilator action of isoproterenol (Iso) from poly(glycolide-co-lactide) (PGL) microspheres. Microspheres with a mean diameter of 4.5 microns and a drug load of 7% were administered intratracheally to Long-Evans rats. The microspheres released about 70% of the incorporated drug in the instillation medium before administration, which provided immediate action, and the remaining 30% was available for sustained release. A total of 120 animals was anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated, and divided into 15 groups (n = 8): 3 groups each for saline, blank microspheres, free Iso, blank microspheres with free Iso, and microencapsulated Iso. All instillations were made in a volume of 1 ml/kg and the dose of all Iso preparations was 0.1 mg/kg. At 3, 6, or 12 hr after the intratracheal instillation, a serotonin challenge (40 micrograms/rat) was administered intravenously to constrict the airways. Airway function tests were performed at each time interval on one group of animals by a maximal expiratory flow-volume maneuver. The heart rate in animals receiving Iso formulations was similar to that in the saline control group, indicating minimal systemic effect of the dose administered. The systemic serum levels were below 2 ng/ml in all the groups. Animals receiving encapsulated Iso resisted the serotonin challenge for at least 12 hr after intratracheal instillation, indicating that the drug was still present over this period of time. On the other hand, the serotonin-induced airway constriction observed in the animals receiving blank microspheres, free Iso, or free Iso with blank microspheres was similar to that in saline controls at all time points. The results clearly show that only a small fraction of the free dose is required in sustained-release form for a prolonged pharmacological effect, resulting in a 50- to 100-fold reduction in the total dose administered.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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