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Psychol Bull. 1993 Jan;113(1):99-128.

Children's peer relations: a meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status.

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Department of Psychology, University of Richmond, Virginia 23173.


Two-dimensional sociometric models have had a critical role in the investigation of children's peer relations in the past decade. In a meta-analysis, fitting categorical models (Hedges, 1982), sociometric group differences on behavioral and information source typologies were assessed. The broad-band behavioral analysis showed that popular children's array of competencies makes them likely recipients of positive peer nominations, whereas high levels of aggression and withdrawal and low levels of sociability and cognitive abilities are associated with rejected peer status. A consistent profile marked by less sociability and aggression emerged for neglected status. Controversial children had higher aggressive behavior than rejected children but compensated for it with significantly better cognitive and social abilities. The moderator effects of narrow-band behavioral categories and information source were also examined.

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