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J Nerv Ment Dis. 1993 Feb;181(2):71-9.

One-year follow-up status of treatment-seeking cocaine abusers. Psychopathology and dependence severity as predictors of outcome.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.


While the prognostic significance of comorbid psychopathology and dependence severity has been demonstrated with opiate addicts and alcoholics, no previous reports have examined these issues in cocaine abusers. We reinterviewed 94 cocaine abusers 1 year after they sought treatment to assess predictors of treatment retention and outcome. Results suggested that: a) Many cocaine abusers did comparatively well; fully a third reported complete abstinence during the 12 months preceding the follow-up interview. b) Three variables emerged as consistent predictors across several outcome domains: severity of drug use, poorer psychiatric functioning, and presence of concurrent alcoholism. c) The data supported a unidimensional model of outcome for cocaine abuse that emphasized reduction in level of substance use. However, abstinence was not strongly associated with improved functioning in all outcome areas. d) Variables associated with longer retention in treatment also tended to predict poorer outcome.

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