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J Pediatr. 1993 Oct;123(4):559-63.

Prevalence of hypertension in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux.

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Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Canada.


This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of hypertension in children with primary, uncomplicated vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and to evaluate the relationship between blood pressure (BP), grade and duration of reflux, and renal scarring. Subjects were identified retrospectively during a 17-year period; of 146 subjects who agreed to participate, 129 (88.4%) were female. Mean age at diagnosis was 5.0 years (range, 1 month to 16 years), and at follow-up was 14.4 years (range, 5 months to 21 years). Mean duration of follow-up was 9.6 years. Renal scarring was detected in 34.3% of patients by intravenous pyelogram, ultrasonography, or both. The BP at diagnosis was linearly related to the grade of reflux, but values were not higher than expected norms for age. At follow-up, mean systolic and diastolic BP were at the 41.6 percentile and the 18.7 percentile, respectively. No patient's BP was above the 55th percentile. After a mean follow-up period of 10 years, we conclude that primary, uncomplicated VUR, regardless of the number of documented urinary tract infections, duration and severity of reflux, modality of therapy, presence of renal scarring, and duration of follow-up, is not associated with the development of hypertension. Hypertension does not appear to be a complication of VUR and urinary tract infection unless there is preexisting dysplasia.

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