Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Immunol. 1993 Oct 15;151(8):4239-47.

Differential cytokine regulation of complement C3, C4, and factor B synthesis in human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2.

Author information

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.


In the intestinal tract, the local synthesis of C3 and components of both the classical (C4) and alternative (factor B) C activation pathway has previously been demonstrated in vivo. However, the cellular source of this local C synthesis has not been identified. In this study, we demonstrated the syntheses of C3, C4, and factor B in the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2, which is regarded as a good experimental model of normal human intestinal epithelial cells. The results of metabolic labeling experiments indicated that the intra- and extracellular molecular sizes and subunit structures of Caco-2-derived C3, C4, and factor B were compatible with previously reported values for these components in other cells. The functional activities of C3 and C4 in the supernatants were also demonstrated by hemolytic titration assay. Furthermore, C syntheses in this line were independently upregulated by several human cytokines: C3 synthesis was dose-dependently enhanced by the addition of IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha; C4 synthesis was enhanced by the addition of IL-6 or IFN-gamma in the same manner; and the addition of IL-1 beta or IL-6 also induced a dose-dependent increase in factor B synthesis. These enhancing effects were confirmed to be specific for individual cytokines by experiments using anti-human cytokine antibodies. It is likely that intestinal epithelial cells are local production sites of C3, C4, and factor B, and that local C syntheses in the intestine are independently regulated by several cytokines, derived from monocytes/macrophages and T cells resident in the mucosal microenvironment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center