Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cryobiology. 1993 Aug;30(4):366-75.

Subzero nonfreezing storage of the mammalian cardiac explant. I. Methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol as colligative cryoprotectants.

Author information

Department of Surgery, University of Rochester, New York 14642.


We employed hyperosmotic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotective agents (CPA) to store the isolated rat hearts unfrozen at subzero temperatures. The effect of acute exposure to CPA was assessed by flushing the hearts with CP-14, a cardioplegic solution, containing methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), ethylene glycol (EG), or propylene glycol (PG) for 2 min and reperfusing immediately with Krebs-Henseleit buffer in a working-heart model. The maximal doses that did not cause irreversible suppression of heart function were: MeOH, 1.78 M; EtOH, 1.27 M; EG, 0.84 M; and PG, 0.87 M. For nonfreezing storage, the hearts were flushed with CP-14 containing the highest tolerable concentrations of MeOH, EtOH, EG, or PG, stored for 6 h at -3.7, -2.8, and -1.4 degrees C, respectively, and then reperfused. Control cardiac output (CO) was 76.2 +/- 1.8 ml/min. Post-reperfusional recovery of CO was 86% in MeOH hearts, 82% in EtOH hearts, 76% in EG hearts, and 79% in PG hearts. Thus MeOH offered not only the least cardiac-suppressing effect but the lowest nonfreezing storage temperature. When storage time was extended, recovery and myocardial ATP level decreased with time in hearts flushed with CP-14 + 1.78 M MeOH and stored at -3.7 degrees C. The decay of function was faster than the decay of ATP level, suggesting energy was better preserved than function. The low return of function, however, may be related to CPA toxicity, osmotic stress, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Nonfreezing storage at subzero temperatures using these CPAs may provide a novel approach to long-term cardiac preservation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center