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Circulation. 1993 Sep;88(3):1101-9.

Cyclosporine therapy after cardiac transplantation causes hypertension and renal vasoconstriction without sympathetic activation.

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1
Alfred and Baker Medical Unit, Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypertension frequently complicates the use of cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, and it has been suggested that sympathoexcitation may be the underlying mechanism in this form of hypertension.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

To further investigate the possibility of a neurogenic mechanism for this hypertensive effect, we studied the effects of CyA on renal blood flow (n = 11), forearm blood flow (n = 8), and sympathetic nervous system activity, assessed by renal and whole-body radiolabeled norepinephrine plasma kinetics and muscle sympathetic nerve firing (using microneurography) in cardiac transplant recipients receiving CyA and a reference group of healthy age-matched control subjects (n = 17). In 11 cardiac transplant patients (2 hours after cyclosporine dose), renal blood flow was significantly lower than that in 8 control subjects (680 +/- 88 vs 1285 +/- 58 mL/min, P < .001). In 5 of these transplant patients, renal blood flow was measured before and for 2 hours after oral cyclosporine and fell progressively over this period, by 37% (P < .01). Total body and renal norepinephrine spillover rates in transplant patients were similar to those in control subjects (3070 +/- 538 vs 2618 +/- 313 pmol/min and 579 +/- 124 vs 573 +/- 95 pmol/min, respectively), and there was no progressive effect in the 2 hours after cyclosporine dosing. Forearm blood flow was increased 2 hours after CyA administration (1.74 +/- 0.31 to 3.12 +/- 0.50 mL x 100 mL-1 x min-1, P < .001), whereas mean arterial blood pressure and noninvasively determined cardiac output (indirect Fick method) were unchanged. Muscle sympathetic nerve discharge rates recorded in 6 of these transplant patients were not different from those in 9 healthy control subjects (37.9 +/- 10.1 vs 41.3 +/- 2.3 bursts per 100 beats per minute). During 90 to 120 minutes of recording after cyclosporine dosing, nerve firing rates remained unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS:

CyA therapy causes acute renal vasoconstriction without accompanying systemic hemodynamic effects. These renal effects are nonneural, not being attributable to sympathoexcitation.

PMID:
8394783
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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